An analysis of the cultural and economic drivers of the growing phenomenon of FGCS, written by cross-disciplinary experts, this book challenges the concept of individual consumer choice in FGCS: a decision that is rarely exercised in a socio-cultural vacuum. Four distinct aspects of FGCS are covered: variations in female genital anatomy; surgical techniques and evidence; historical contexts and ethical dilemmas; norm-critical understandings to inform professional responses. Rendering philosophical critiques accessible, and exposing dubious social values that underpin the practice, this text is crucial in driving a broader understanding of FGCS as a cultural phenomenon of our times. Only with a fuller understanding of the multiple perspectives of FGCS, can there be sensible alternatives for women and girls psychologically troubled by their natural, healthy form. Offering explanations and interventions at individual, institutional and societal levels, this text will be valued by both professional and non-professional audiences.