This book introduces readers to the principles of laser interaction with biological cells and tissues with varying degrees of organization. In addition to considering the problems of biomedical cell diagnostics, and modeling the scattering of laser irradiation of blood cells for biological structures (dermis, epidermis, vascular plexus), it presents an analytic theory based on solving the wave equation for the electromagnetic field. It discusses a range of mathematical modeling topics, including optical characterization of biological tissue with large-scale and small-scale inhomogeneities in the layers; heating blood vessels using laser irradiation on the outer surface of the skin; and thermo-chemical denaturation of biological structures based on the example of human skin.

In this second edition, a new electrodynamic model of the interaction of laser radiation with blood cells is presented for the structure of cells and the in vitro prediction of optical properties. The approach developed makes it possible to determine changes in cell size as well as modifications in their internal structures, such as transformation and polymorphism nucleus scattering, which is of interest for cytological studies. The new model is subsequently used to calculate the size distribution function of irregular-shape particles with a variety of forms and structures, which allows a cytological analysis of the observed deviations from normal cells.

This guide to laser interactions with a variety of biological cells and tissues delivers a practical analytical tool for assessing interference effects. It includes mathematical models and solutions to recognized problems in biomedical diagnostics.

Introduction

1 The main physical processes occurring in the interaction of optical radiation with matter

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Reflection and refraction

1.3 Absorption

1.4 Scattering

1.5 A Turbid media

References

2 Methods Describing the Interaction of Laser Radiation

with Biological Tissues

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Structure and Optical Properties of Biological Tissues

2.3 The Structure and Optical Properties blood

References

Annotation. Here we consider the structure and optical properties of biological tissues, blood.

3 Overview of Theoretical Approaches to the Analysis

of Light Scattering

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Optical Properties of Tissues with Multiple Scattering

3.3 Stationary Theory of Radiative Transfer

3.4 Approximate Methods for Solving the Transport Equation

3.5 The Non-stationary Theory of Radiative Transfer 3.6 Methods for Measuring Optical Parameters of Biological Tissues

3.7 Methods for Solving Inverse Problems of Scattering Theory

3.8 Resume

References

Annotation. We propose methods of light scattering for the quantitative study

of the optical characteristics of the tissue, and the results of theoretical and

experimental studies of photon transport in biological tissues.

4 Study of optical Characteristics of Blood Formed Elements Using Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Scattering by a particle with a shifted nucleus

4.3 The scattering cofficients

4.4 Scattering by a group of spherical objects

4.5 Numerical study of the Algebraic equations

4.6 Eigenmodes of the optical cavity with a cuvette filled with

spherical particles

4.7 Numerical analysis

4.8 Resume

References

Kirill Kulikov is a full professor since 01.09.2014 at Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnical University, Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Department of Higher Mathematics. He works at Department of Higher Mathematics of the Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnical University He received his Ph. D. in Physics and Mathematics «Mathematical Modeling of the Optical Properties of Multilayer Biological Systems and Structures in their Heterogeneous Conjugation» (2004). He has habilitation at the State Polytechnical University (Great St.Petersburg Polytechnical University) of St. Petersburg, Russia (Doctor Science in Physics and Mathematics). Doctor of Science thesis title «Analytical models of interaction of laser radiation with complex heterogeneous biological tissues» (2014). His research interests are theory diffraction, electrodynamics, physics of lasers, tissue optical methods of mathematical modeling in biological tissue optics and numerical method, biophysics.

Tatiana Koshlan graduated from St. Petersburg State University, the department of Molecular Biophysics and Physics of Polymers. She is Master of Science in the field of biophysics. Now she is a post-graduate student, the department of Photonic, St. Petersburg State University. Her interdisciplinary research is in the field of biological and physical sciences. Her research is devoted to studying the interaction of biological molecules by physical methods, using mathematical tools to develop new technology and software with the ability to perform systematic measurements of various data sets of biological interactions.

This book introduces readers to the principles of laser interaction with biological cells and tissues with varying degrees of organization. In addition to considering the problems of biomedical cell diagnostics, and modeling the scattering of laser irradiation of blood cells for biological structures (dermis, epidermis, vascular plexus), it presents an analytic theory based on solving the wave equation for the electromagnetic field. It discusses a range of mathematical modeling topics, including optical characterization of biological tissue with large-scale and small-scale inhomogeneities in the layers; heating blood vessels using laser irradiation on the outer surface of the skin; and thermo-chemical denaturation of biological structures based on the example of human skin.

In this second edition, a new electrodynamic model of the interaction of laser radiation with blood cells is presented for the structure of cells and the in vitro prediction of optical properties. The approach developed makes it possible to determine changes in cell size as well as modifications in their internal structures, such as transformation and polymorphism nucleus scattering, which is of interest for cytological studies. The new model is subsequently used to calculate the size distribution function of irregular-shape particles with a variety of forms and structures, which allows a cytological analysis of the observed deviations from normal cells.

Presents a new scientific concept of a multicomponent, complex structure of biological tissues

Develops an asymptotic theory of diffraction for predicting the optical properties of inhomogeneous biological structures with varying degrees of complexity

Proposes an interpretation of the physical mechanism of interaction of laser radiation with heterogeneous multicomponent tissue

Provides effective algorithms for solving problems in biomedical diagnostics